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HENRY VIII 1509 – 1547
EDWARD VI 1547 – 1553
MARY I (Bloody Mary) 1553 – 1558
ELIZABETH I 1558 – 1603

The Tudor and Elizabethan  period of furniture (also known as the “Age of Oak) was mostly comprised of heavy carvings and flamboyant features. Popular themes included floral designs, fruit and geometric patterns. Bulky oak legs, and stretchers adorned the beds, chairs and tables. Court cupboards, sideboards, high back wooden chairs, mule chests, and coffers would be some of the relevant pieces of furniture for this period. Large four-poster beds became more common since the introduction of the feather bedding instead of straw. Most pieces were somewhat heavy and elaborate.


JAMES I and VI of Scotland 1603 -1625
CHARLES 1 1625 – 1649 English Civil War
OLIVER CROMWELL, Lord Protector 1653 – 1658
RICHARD CROMWELL, Lord Protector 1658 – 1659
CHARLES II 1660 – 1685
JAMES II and VII of Scotland 1685 – 1688

WILLIAM III 1689 – 1702 and MARY II 1689 – 1694

ANNE 1702 – 1714

Jacobean style furniture (1603–1649)

The Jacobean period started when James I became king. The name is derived from the Neo-Latin meaning “James”. The period started very similar to where the Tudor period had left off. Furniture was still big, and bulbous the tables had got bigger with flaps that could be raised to extend the table, paving the way for large gateleg tables with spiral twist legs. The ball foot was introduced, and the joint of choice was mortise and tenon, carvings had become even more elaborate and decorative with petals, semi-circles, scrolls and eights. Wainscot chairs and paneling were common of this period; however, chairs were still not produced in large numbers as they were considered only fit for the upper-class. Tapestries were used as forms of upholstery, and the carved bulb became a common feature on many pieces. Commonwealth or Cromwellian style furniture (1649-1660)  The years after the English civil war were perhaps some of the grimmest, and most trying times. Puritans and religious zealots wanted a simpler furniture with less exuberance, and attention to detail. Wood carvings, marquetry and geometrical patterns were seldom used. Upholstery was considered to be exorbitant, and frowned upon. Leather would replace the upholstered chairs from before. Furniture became more functional and practical in utilization, rather than being adorned with decorative patterns and motifs. Restoration style furniture (1660-1689) Charles II (1660-1685) was restored to the throne, and so comes the name “Restoration Period” or Carolean Period. After 10 years of basic puritan furniture, England was ready to produce a new style or look. This period saw the birth of bookcases, bureaus and day beds. From the aristocracy to the middle-class furniture was wanted in high demand. People wanted to furnish their homes with fashionable items. Charles II had experienced French and Dutch furniture while he was in exile, and brought back these ideas to England. Silver embellishments were added to chair frames, walnut veneer replaced solid oak, silk fringes and lavish upholstery adorned chairs and settees. Wardrobes were built for people to hang their clothes. Furniture styles included barley twist on legs, stretchers, gate leg tables and chairs. The Flemish S scroll made its first debut, and European craftsmen were brought in to teach new skills in furniture making this would include some of the newer inlaying techniques. William and Mary period furniture (1689–1702) This period of furniture came from the marriage of the English Mary Stuart, the daughter of James II to the Dutch William of Orange. This era saw a great deal of Dutch influence, and was also known as the early Baroque period. William brought Dutch cabinet makers with him from the Netherlands to build furniture at Kensington palace, and Hampton court. The furniture of this period was elegant, stylish and refined. Chests were built higher to showcase their beauty, and demonstrate their decorative effects which commonly involved parquetry, veneering, inlay, marquetry and lacquering. William and Mary period of furniture saw the birth of elaborate and flamboyant furniture styles, which emphasized the wood grain, walnut was the wood of choice featuring bun feet and generally lighter, versatile and more comfortable. The dovetailing technique for joints in furniture made its first appearance, and became the standard allowing for lighter construction and more innovation. Queen Anne period furniture (1702–1714) The Queen Anne period of furniture, also known as the Late Baroque period, or Rococo period was the “Age of Walnut” seeing that it was almost exclusively used, although cherry was another favorite. Some of the most common features included the curved cabriole legs, pad feet, shell and fan motifs, C and S scrolls. Queen Anne started the custom of drinking tea, and having tea parties. This made way for small tables, ottomans, chairs, wingback chairs and tilt top tables. Queen Anne chairs were comfortable, and had cushioned seats that were often “U” shaped, they also had upholstered back supports. The style was considered light, curved and dainty.


GEORGE I 1714 -1727
GEORGE II 1727 -1760
GEORGE III 1760 – 1820
GEORGE IV 1820 – 1830
WILLIAM IV 1830 – 1837
VICTORIA 1837 – 1901
EDWARD VII 1901-1910
Georgian/Regency period furniture (1714–1830) 

The reigns of the four monarchs – George I, George II, George III, and George IV are known as the Georgian and Regency periods of furniture. This period saw the growth of important designers, and cabinet makers, such as Thomas Chippendale, Robert and James Adam, George Hepplewhite and Thomas Sheraton. Walnut slowly faded, and gave way to Mahogany; legs started to lose their pad feet and became ball and claw. Chairs were smaller, delicate and with narrow and elegant carvings denoting shells and fish scales. Marble tops began to grace the side tables, and intricate marquetry and inlay was applied to display cabinets and bureaus. Wardrobes, book cases, secretaires, sideboards, clocks, tables, desks and seating were made with high quality craftsmanship. England’s furniture scene was changing, and this would become known as “The Golden Age of Furniture” William IV period furniture (1830-1837) The reign of William IV was a short one, but it made way for some important changes in furniture styling. It would be a heavier and coarser look. Pieces of furniture would have square feet know as Marlborough feet, table legs would have brass or bronze fittings with lion’s paw feet. Sofa tables, drum tables and game tables would have, torches, crowns and laurel leaves carved into them. These designs were reminiscent of the Chippendale era previous. The furniture would also have bronze or brass decorative hardware in a gothic and/or rococo revival style. More exotic woods were used such as rosewood and zebrawood, and furniture makers like Robert Jupe were introducing innovative designs for expanding tables. Victorian period furniture (1837–1901) Victoria’s reign of furniture making saw the commencement of the industrial revolution, with the introduction of machinery and process. Furniture was now mass produced, identifying marks were slowly disappearing. The personal touch had gone, furniture was now being made in various facilities and individualism was diminishing. The furniture styles were typically heavy, bulky and dark brown it had influences of rococo, gothic and Louis XV styles about it. Demand was high and owning furniture during this era was viewed as a status symbol. Upholstery using springs was introduced, and deep cushioned chairs, settees and chaise lounges with decorative fabrics were all the rage. Big bookcases, drop-front desks, linen presses, chests of drawers, desks, tables and beds were all being made using mahogany, walnut, cherry, pine, chestnut and oak. Edward VII period furniture (1901-1910) Known as the Edwardian era, you can easily tell Edwardian style by looking at the clean sweeping simple lines and straight edges, it would contain a lot of floral designs, lighter woods, inlays and marquetry. All this was heavily inspired from the styles of the past. This was a revival period which in turn saw a concentration of reproduction furniture which become very popular during this period. Craftsmen starting replicating furniture from the Tudor, Renaissance and Georgian eras. This time in history also saw the industrialization of the British Isles causing some remarkable changes such as the beginning of electricity, which in turn caused the birth of the table lamp. Colors and fabrics were not so vibrant, but softer, lighter, pastel shades were pronominally used. Wicker and bamboo were introduced, and antique collecting was starting to become popular.